Gastric Weight Loss Surgery: Procedure, Risks, Recovery, Effects
Did you know that obesity around the globe has tripled since 1975? According to the World Health Organization, three years ago 1.6 billion adults were overweight out of which 650 million people were obese. Obesity is declared as a global health epidemic. Being overweight and obese can cause some serious health concerns. The main reason for being obese is eating extra food and not burning those extra calories.
So for foodies who love to eat but fear that they might develop some serious health issues due to their sudden weight gain, bariatric surgery is the perfect solution for them. Bariatric surgery is the easiest method to lose weight quickly without compromising the love for food.
What is obesity?
Medically, the definition of obesity is having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. The measure of the weight in relation to the height is known as body mass index.
Classes of obesity:
- Class 1 obesity- BMI of the individual is between 30 and 35
- Class 2 obesity- BMI of the individual is between 35 and 40
- Class 3 obesity- BMI of the individual is over 40
Class 2 and Class 3 are also known as severe obesity.
What is bariatric surgery?
This can be done in two ways:
- Makes changes to the digestive tract by limiting how much one can eat or drink
- Makes changes to the digestive system by reducing the absorption of nutrients
Weight loss surgery is recommended to severely obese patients and they are unable to lose weight or they keep gaining back any weight they lost using other methods such as medications or lifestyle treatment.
Why it’s done?
According to Resistance Pro experts, Gastric weight loss surgery is carried out to minimize the risk of potentially life-threatening weight-related health concerns such as:
Gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD)
In GERD, acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids back up from the stomach into the food pipe, also known as the esophagus. GERD likely develops in patients with asthma.
Cardiovascular or heart disease refers to problems related to the heart that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels. This can lead to chest pain, heart attack, or stroke.
Type 2 diabetes
Also called insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes suffered by people. In type 2 diabetes, the body is unable to use insulin properly. The body is unable to use glucose efficiently.
This is a serious sleep disorder in which breathing starts and stops repeatedly. The more common type of sleep apnea is the obstructive one. This happens because the throat muscles relax obstructing the passage of air.
What are the Different Types of Bariatric Surgery?
Basically, there are two types of bariatric surgery- restrictive and malabsorptive surgeries.
Restricting the size of the stomach which eventually slows down the digestion is known as restrictive surgery while malabsorptive surgeries are those which are more invasive that, in addition to restricting the size of the stomach, parts of the digestive tract are also removed physically. This decreases the absorption of calories.
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band
In this type of surgery, a ring is placed by the surgeon with an inner inflatable band around the top of the stomach which creates a small pouch. After eating a small amount of food, the patient feels full. A circular balloon is inside the band that is filled with a salt solution. This process of placing gastric bands is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for people with a BMI of 30 or more. These patients might also have at least one health problem linked to obesity, such as diabetes.
The surgeon adjusts the size of the hole from the pouch to the rest of the stomach by injecting or removing the solution through a small device called a port placed under the skin.
After surgery, several follow-up visits are advised to adjust the size of the band opening. If the band causes issues or is not helping lose enough weight, the surgeon may remove it.
Gastric sleeve surgery is also known as vertical sleeve gastrectomy in the health industry. In this restrictive procedure, a surgeon removes a large part of the stomach which only leaves behind a banana-shaped section that is closed with staples. Similar to gastric band surgery, this surgery reduces the amount of food that can fit in the stomach. The gut hormones and other factors such as gut bacteria are affected by taking out part of the stomach. This type of surgery is irreversible as some of the stomachs is permanently removed.
Gastric bypass surgery is also known as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The method has two parts. First, the surgeon staples the stomach into a small pouch in the upper section. This pouch is the only part that receives food. These staples make the stomach much smaller, so the patient eats small amounts of food and he or she feels full sooner like Adele, Susan Boyle,
After that, the surgeon cuts the small intestine a short distance and connects the lower part of it directly to the small stomach pouch. As the name suggests, food then bypasses most of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine and enters directly to the lower end of the small intestine. This makes the body absorb fewer calories. The bypassed section is still attached to the larger part of the stomach so that digestive juices can move from the stomach and the first part of the small intestine into the lower part of the small intestine. The bypass, like sleeve surgery, changes gut bacteria, gut hormones and other factors that affect appetite and metabolism.
This type of weight loss surgery is more complex than others. The duodenal switch also called biliopancreatic diversion involves two separate surgeries. The first step is similar to that of gastric sleeve surgery. The second surgery redirects the food to devour most of the small intestine. The surgeon also attaches the bypassed section to the last part of the small intestine that allows the digestive juices to mix with food.
It is considered as the most effective weight loss surgery because this type of surgery allows losing more weight than the other three. This surgery is also most likely to cause surgery-related problems and a shortage of vitamins, minerals, and protein in the body. For these reasons, surgeons do not perform this surgery very frequently.
What are the side effects of bariatric surgery?
Some of the major side effects may include:
- Leaking from the site where the sections of the stomach or small intestine, or both, are stapled or sewn together
- Blood clots in the legs that can move to the lungs and heart
- Rarely, surgery-related problems can lead to death.
Other side effects may appear later. Doctors prescribe vitamins and minerals. Insufficient absorption of nutrients can cause health problems, such as anemia and osteoporosis. Gallstones are likely to develop after rapid weight loss. Hence, doctors prescribe medicine for about six months after surgery to help prevent gallstones. Gastric bands can also erode into the stomach wall which needs to be removed.
What are the risks involved in bariatric surgery from Resistance Pro experts?
Some bariatric surgery risks include:
- Acid reflux
- Anesthesia-related risks
- Chronic nausea and vomiting
- Dilation of esophagus
- Inability to eat certain foods
- Infection of the wound
- Obstruction of stomach
- Weight gain or failure to lose weight
- Development of gallstones
- Dumping syndrome which occurs after eating high-sugar meals
Some research suggests that bariatric surgery, especially gastric bypass, may change the way the body absorbs and breaks down alcohol, which may lead to more alcohol-related problems after the operation.
How you can recover from bariatric surgery?
Activities to Avoid
For three to six weeks after surgery, strenuous activity is prohibited. Some of the activities which need to be avoided are-
- Lifting heavy weights or doing push or pull motions such as vacuuming, during the first six weeks after surgery.
- Heavy tasks such as lifting, carrying or pushing heavy loads for the first three months after surgery.
- Sitting and standing without moving for prolonged periods of time. Frequently, change positions while sitting, and walk around in lieu of standing still. These strategies may help prevent blood clots from forming in legs. Climbing stairs is encouraged.
If someone who has undergone gastric weight loss surgery is feeling pain post-treatment, he or she will be able to push a button on a cord to administer pain medication to yourself. This process of inserting a cord is called “patient-controlled analgesia,” or PCA. The patient is shifted to oral medication once he’s able to tolerate fluids.
During the first several weeks after surgery, it is normal to feel weak easily after activity. However, light activity, such as frequent short walks, is recommended by surgeons. Distance should be increased gradually. the. The more physically active the patient is the faster he recovers. It will not only enhance recovery but also ultimately give more strength Walking 30 to 45 minutes per day by the sixth week is advisable.
Doctors advise for walking and even changing positions in bed as these activities help promote blood circulation. Good blood flow ensures that there is no blood clots and enhances faster healing. Standing up, walking and doing the postoperative exercises may help minimize complications.
Now foodies around the globe can enjoy all different types of cuisines without the fear of gaining sudden weight. For permanent loss of weight, gastric bypass and other bariatric surgeries are provided. Depending on the type of surgery and changes in lifestyle habits, patients may lose half or even more within two years. Gastric weight loss surgery also improves the ability to perform routine daily activities which could ultimately improve the overall quality of life.